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快速提高托福閱讀詞匯題的錦囊妙計
時間:2014-08-21
        詞匯問題是新托福閱讀每次的必考題型,它要求考生確定文章中個別單詞或短語的具體意思,也就是說單詞的意思必須符合原文的意思。并且通常情況下,被考到的單詞或短語對于理解文章的一個大的或重要的部分起到至關重要的作用。

  如何識別此類問題

  詞匯類問題很容易辨認,在文章中被考到的單詞或短語會被用陰影標識出來,問題的提問形式通常為:

  ☆ In the case of a word, the question might be :

  The word X in the passage is closest in meaning to

  ☆ In the case of a phrase, the question might be :

  In stating X, the author means that

  The phrase X in the passage is closest in meaning to

  其中,以第一種形式,也就是考察考生某單詞在文章上下文中意思的問題類型最為常見。

  如何答題

  1. 在文章中定位到陰影標識的單詞或短語。

  2. 仔細閱讀該詞或短語所在句子。

  3. 在句子中尋找可以幫助理解陰影標識的單詞或短語的具體意思的線索。

  4. 選擇答案,并將所選擇的單詞或短語放入原文進行檢驗,以確認這個句子在全文中仍是有意義的。

  提醒考生注意,選擇答案時,不要僅僅因為某個選項符合該單詞的某一個正確意思就將其作為正確選項;題目考察的是作者在文章上下文中使用了那一個詞義。

  如何利用各種線索

  ☆ 結構線索(即指明句子中各成分之間關系的特定單詞、短語和語法結構)

  1. 對比

  Example: OG Practice Set 5, question 6

  Passage 5: In this newly emerging economic order, workers sometimes organized to protect their rights and traditional ways of life. Craftworkers such as carpenters and tailors formed unions and in 1834 individual unions came together in the National Trades’ Union. The labor movement gathered some momentum in the decade before the Panic of 1837, but in the depression that followed, labor’s strength collapsed…

  The phrase gathered some momentum in the passage is closest in meaning to

  ○ made progress

  ○ became active

  ○ caused changes

  ○ combined forces

  解析:單詞readily所在的文章句子中出現轉折詞but,根據文章中but后面的內容我們可以得出短語gathered some momentum在此句中的的意思為made progress。

  2. 例子

  Example: OG Practice Set 4, question 10

  Passage 8: One cognitive theory suggests that aggravating and painful events trigger unpleasant feelings. These feelings in turn, can lead to aggressive action, but not automatically. Cognitive factors intervene. People decide whether they will act aggressively or not on other people’s motives. Supporting evidence comes from research showing that aggressive people often distort other people’s motives. For example, they assume that other people mean them harm when they do not。

  The word distort in the passage is closest in meaning to

  ○ mistrust

  ○ misinterpret

  ○ criticize

  ○ resent

  解析:distort所在的文章句子后出現“ for example”, 根據for example 中的內容,我們可以得出distort在此句中的意思為misinterpret。

  3. 并列信息

  Example: OG Practice Set 5, question 3

  Passage 3: …Absenteeism and lateness hurt productivity and since work was specialized, disrupted the regular factory routine. Industrialization not only produced a fundamental change in the way work was organized; it transformed the very nature of work。

  The word disrupted in the passage is closest in meaning to

  ○ prolonged

  ○ established

  ○ followed

  ○ upset

  解析:disrupt 在的文章句子中出現and連接的并列信息hurt,根據這一并列信息,我們可以得出disrupt在此句中的意思為upset。

  4. 因果關系

  Example: OG Practice Set 6, question 1

  Passage 1: …Feeding, courtship, preproduction, and even “rest” are carried out while in constant motion. As a result, practically every aspect of the body form and function of these swimming “machines” is adapted to enhance their ability to swim。

  The word enhance in the passage is closest in meaning to

  ○ use

  ○ improve

  ○ counteract

  ○ balance

  解析:enhance 在的文章句子中出現表示因果關系的短語as a result,根據前一句中的原因,我們可以得出enhance在此句中的意思為improve。

  5. 連詞or

  Example: OG The EXPRESSION OF EMOTIONS question 1

  Passage 1: Joy and sadness are experienced by people in all cultures around the world, but how can we tell when other people are happy or despondent? It turns out that the expression of many emotions may e universal…

  The word despondent in the passage is closest in meaning to

  ○ curious

  ○ unhappy

  ○ thoughtful

  ○ uncertain

  解析:despondent 所在的文章句子中出現疑問句,疑問句中的連詞or 表示選擇,因此我們可以得出despondent在此句中的意思為unhappy?

  ☆ 數字/時間

  Example: OG Practice Set 3, question 11

  Passage 6: With the advent of projection, the viewer’s relationship with the image was no longer private, as it had been with earlier peepshow devices such as the Kinetoscope and the Mutoscope, which was a similar machine that reproduced motion by means of successive images on individual photographic cards instead of strips of celluloid. It suddenly became public –an experience that the viewer shared with dozens, score, and even hundreds of others. At the same time, the image that the spectator looked at expanded from the minuscule peepshow dimensions of 1 or 2 inches (in height) to the life-size proportions of 6 or 9 feet。

  The word expanded in the passage is closest in meaning to

  ○ was enlarged

  ○ was improved

  ○ was varied

  ○ was rejected

  解析:expanded所在的文章句子中出現從“1 or 2 inches”到“6 or 9 feet”,因此我們可以輕而易舉得出expanded在文章中上下文意思為 was enlarged。

  ☆ 標點線索

  Example: OG Practice Set 3, question 4

  Passage 3: Exhibitors, however, wanted to maximize their profits, which they could do more readily by projecting a handful of films to hundreds of customers at a time (rather than one at a time) and by charging 25 to 50 cents admission…

  The word readily in the passage is closest in meaning to

  ○ frequently

  ○ easily

  ○ intelligently

  ○ obviously

  解析:readily 在的文章句子中出現表示附加或補充信息的圓括號(),根據圓括號中的內容,我們可以得出readily在此句中的意思為easily。

  ☆ 構詞法

  根據構詞法,單詞的結構有三部分:前綴(prefixes),詞干(stems)和后綴(suffixes)。詞干是單詞的構成基礎,前綴和后綴則分別加在詞干的前面和后面,從而改變單詞的詞性和含義。而前綴、后綴和詞干都有其固定含義,因此根據構詞法,我們就可以利用其固定含義來判斷生詞的意思。


  Example: OG NINETEENTH-CENTURY POLITICS IN THE UNITED STATES

  Passage 1: …During his administration he immeasurably enlarged the power of the presidency…

  The word immeasurably in the passage is closest in meaning to

  ○ frequently

  ○ greatly

  ○ rapidly

  ○ reportedly

  解析:immeasurably一詞的詞根為measure(測量、度量),詞綴分別為im-(不),-able(能…的),-ly(由形容詞變為副詞)。因此我們可以判斷immeasurably一詞在此句中的意思為greatly?

  所以考好托福閱讀的大前提是詞匯量,其實在英語考試中,不管是雅思還是托福,不管是口語還是寫作,我們都離不開詞匯量,這是我們學好英語的基礎,所以小編才在這里一再提示詞匯量的重要性,最后小編祝大家考試順利!
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